The Bamboostic installation combines the properties of pneumatic muscles utilised for actuation purposes and a central mast of bamboo specifically chosen for its flexibility (hence the name). The kinetic behaviour involved the mast being embedded in a heavy base, with the top being free so that the it could be pulled in different directions by means of attaching pneumatic muscles (connected via steel cables) on three sides of the bamboo.
In order to materialise this idea, detailed steel clamps were specifically developed and were fixed at regular intervals along the length of the bamboo (a smaller clamp towards the top end and a larger clamp towards the mid height of the bamboo). Steel strings, interconnected with three pneumatic muscles placed on three sides of the central bamboo mast were eventually woven through the clamps and connected to the rigid base. Actuation of each individual muscle hence produced the conceptualised movement of the bamboo in controllable directions.
After successfully building and testing one prototype, a series of the same were created and grouped together to create a forest of kinetic bamboo structures. However, in order to derive a meaningful sense of interaction from this mechanical forest, it was decided to develop a mutual interdependence between the environmental settings within which the installation would be positioned and the nature of actuation which each structure would be subjected to.
Two sets of activities were specifically chosen for the project, the first being very natural: the movement of people in space, and the second one an artificially induced one: the movement of a goldfish in a water tank. These movement patterns were sensed in real-time and were used as a trigger the dynamics of the mechanised forest. An approach akin to a swarm was decided upon. This approach entailed that the kinetic behaviour would be regulated in accordance with the proximity of people near each individual bamboo structure. The so called tree nearest to an individual will bend towards him/her the most and this bending movement will be replicated in a decreasing degree of bend angle by the surrounding trees. At times when there would be an absence of people in the field, the movement of the goldfish would substitute the interaction pattern. In order to materialise this vision, camera based tracking and programming every tree as an autonomous agent, which communicates its current state only to its immediate neighbour were extensively researched. The overall complexity of the interaction hence stems from the interaction between the agent population and the proximity of humans in their vicinity. Humans thus become a part and parcel of an intricate loop of intercommunication between themselves and the mechanised trees. Subject and object relationships dissolve and an active engagement via live behavioural interaction emerges.
Tracking and scripting behaviour:
Tracking in real time is conducted at two places: the floor area on which the installation is placed and the fish tank in which the goldfish is placed. In terms of hardware, two web cameras are utilized for the tracking purpose. The camera tracking the floor area is positioned near the ceiling from where it monitors a patch of 5m X 8m within which the installation is laid out. A graph sheet proportionate in ratio to the floor area is printed and laid below the base of the fish tank over which the second web camera monitors the movement of the fish. Critical nodes, where the mechanical trees are positioned are also plot out on the graph sheet hence developing a mirror image of the installation in graphical terms. The live stream from these two web cameras are directly fed into a real time game design software: Virtools, where scripted routines act upon the tracked movement in a rule based manner. This rule base is essentially responsible for communicating data as regards the proximity of an individual to any of the nodes/trees to the corresponding (nearest) bamboo stick. Each tree/bamboostic, in itself is considered as an agent, as mentioned above and hence carries its own set of generic rules corresponding to the direction in which the construct has to bend while communicating this change in direction to its nearest neighbours. The neighbouring agents, replicate the direction of bending (in a reducing degree). A natural swarm like behaviour, rich in its organic appeal slowly emerges.
Keywords >> Real-time interaction, Architectural robotics, Bamboo, Pneumatic Muscles, Swarm behaviour, Tracking, Data communication and Information regulation
more to come soon
Experiment 01: MUSCLE RECONFIGURED
The Muscle re-configured prototype was conceived as a three dimensional strip in space, programmed to respond to its occupants through its sensing (proximity and touch sensors), processing (graphical scripting for real-time output) and actuating (fluidic muscles) enhancements. The construct utilises the properties of Hylite (a composite of Aluminium and Plastic) panel’s being bendable and the Fluidic muscle’s properties of being able to produce compression power to transform the otherwise hard edged (visually) spatial strip into soft luxuriant topologies. Each Hylite panel coupled with two fluidic muscles hence forms the basic unit of the strip. Subsequent panels are joined together to create a closed 3D loop, in the process creating a series of nodes (junctions where the panels join). These nodes, are linked in space in a highly interdependent manner and constantly exchange information (air pressure variations) with immediate neighbouring nodes, thus behaving as a collective, to attain spatial reconfigurations. This dense network of nodes has two typologies: external and internal node typologies. The external (constituting fluidic muscles at the junctions) predominantly dealing with sets of sensors and actuators and the internal (corresponding air valves and their array sequence in the graphical script) dealing with computation and data processing elements.
A rule based control algorithm developed in Virtools (gaming software) binds the two node typologies together to produce the desired data exchange and data output scenarios (amount of air pressure to be released to the fluidic muscle).
The Muscle re-configured project, works componentially by means of cumulative coupling of the basic unit mentioned above. This combinatorial approach is utilised for developing specific behaviours (in terms of kinetic movements) giving rise to three distinct elements: the responsive floor, ceiling and wall:
The floor units: are structurally strengthened by means of adding wedge shaped styrofoam sections below the Hylite panel's surface, which interlock to provide load bearing seating and relaxation surface conditions. They also embed pressure sensors (for manual control) which, when pressed produce curvature changes by means of varying the amount of air pressure released to the fluidic muscles of the seats. The floor units also embody proximity sensors at their base, which, instantly after sensing the proximity of people trigger the seating units to a pre programmed position, hence creating suggestive usability scenarios.
The ceiling units: positioning/orientation of the panels are directly related with the configurations, which the floor units acquire. Based upon the current state of the floor units, the ceiling units morph into smooth curvilinear topologies (to impart a cocooned feeling), or produce openings in the ceiling surface for allowing light to venture through. These behaviours are attained by means of utilising shear compression power of the corresponding sets of fluidic muscles attached to the Hylite sheet units and provide different spatial qualities. Besides this, inter-dependant operation, the ceiling units also have an automated behaviour setting (pre-programmed). The automated mode is set into action if the prototype doesn’t encounter any activity in its immediate context and hence uses this tactile response as a manner of attracting potential users.
The wall units: constitute the same generic Hylite panels, which are woven together to create a continuous surface with the ceiling elements. The same principle of compression strengths goes into operating the wall, which, when actuated, bends to create projection surfaces and leaning surfaces. The actuation of the wall and ceiling units are intrinsically linked with the furniture unit's actuations, hence weaving the entire construct into a real-time data processing cumulative whole.
Keywords >> Real-time interaction, Architectural robotics, Sensing, actuation and control systems, Hylite panels, Pneumatic Muscles, Air pressure regulation
experiment 03: Multi-mod
The research agenda involved developing projects dealing with the design, fabrication and assembly of real-time adaptive prototypes for a compact multimodal studio apartment. The project is developed in active collaboration with Blauwhoed, a leading Dutch real estate developer based in Rotterdam. The design and research task given here deals with designing a small but well equipped apartment 50 m2 that has all the spatial qualities and functional performances of a standard 100 m2 apartment. Understanding daily operational rhythms of varying demographics, understanding their behavioural patterns as well as expectations from the spaces they inhabit became central issues for the investigations. Parallel to this strategies of real-time spatial adaptation fused with interactive interfaces to operate and automate the adaptive behaviour resulted in the production of novel apartment concepts and physical prototypes demonstrating their potential.
Keywords >> Adaptive architecture, Architectural Robotics, Kinetic systems, Human behaviour, Material systems, 1:1 Fabrication, Real-time interaction
experiment 04: Building skin systems
The Performative building skin systems explorations aim at developing real-time responsive, self-sustaining building skins. The idea stemmed from the fact that the maximum surface area of any built form which is exposed to the elements are its facade and roofing elements. Considering this fact, what if, these elements became smart and integrated novel structure+skin solutions which harvest energy as well as interact with the occupants of the building at the same time. Componential population of energy harvesters from sources such as wind, sun, rain etc thus symbiotically designed to fulfil energy demands of each other (self powering) by intelligently sharing the produced energy and then store excess energy for the building's usage. Kinetics and material systems play a big role within these explorations, where real-time physical adaptation of the components towards the elements maximized the energy gain. Analogue experiments to determine componential variations and associated impacts on issues such as visibility ratios, air filtration, active air exchange etc lead to the development of computational algorithms, which further drive the operational logistics of the skins.
Keywords >> Energy harvesting, Real-time response, Kinetic systems, Self-sustaining, Energy flow and regulation, Prototyping, Sensing, actuation and control systems
experiment 05: inter-performing environments
The Design driven research operates on the premise that bodily motion and non-verbal communication can be understood as interfaces of emotional expression and cognition. The idea of creating a proactive behaviour loop between the body, the physical and ambient space it operates within as well as the tools and techniques offered by contemporary new media technologies shall be a central operational logic driving the studio. Students are encouraged to understand and conceive architectural space as an instrument, which on its own is reduced to an objectified entity. The behavioural engagement of the body, ambient parameters such as sound, light, tactility etc. and the physicality of architectural space into an inter-activating systemic entity shall thus progressively create new modes of communication and perception. The studio thus challenges the students to create physical and digital prototypes establishing this correlation in real-time and present their visions on this synergistic ecology of expression. Connecting physical, organic and digital domains shall also heighten the sense of abstraction within the students and provide new modes for conceiving interaction scenarios.
Keywords >> Interactive architecture, Architectural robotics, Sensing, actuation & control systems, Real-time response, Human psychology, human computer interaction, tangible interfaces
Biloria. N.; Architecture Institute of Korea, ISSN 1225-1666, Article: Inter-performing morphologies,2014
Biloria, N.; Co-Editor, Book: Hyperbody, First Decade of Interactive Architecture, Jap Sam Publishers, Netherlands, ISBN-10: 9490322091, ISBN-13: 978-9490322090, August, 2012
Biloria N.; Interactive morphologies: An investigation into integrated nodal networks and embedded computation processes for developing real-time responsive spatial systems, Frontiers of Architectural Research Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2012, Pages 259–271
Biloria, N.; Interactive Bodies, Forward, Volume 110, ISSN 2153-7526, American Institute of Architects Publishers, USA, 2010, pp. 69-76
Biloria, N, Sumini, V.; Performative Building Skin Systems: A Morphogenomic Approach Towards Developing Real-Time Adaptive Building Skin Systems, International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 7 - no. 4, 2009, pp. 643-676.
>> Journal Publication >> Psyllidis, A & Biloria, NM (2014). OntoPolis: A semantic participatory platform for perfor- mance assessment and augmentation of urban environments. In s.n. (Ed.), 10th IEEE international conference on intelligent environments (pp. 140-147). Piscataway: IEEE.
>> Publication >> Achilleas Psyllidis, Nimish Biloria (2014); Intelligent environments 2014 Conference, Article accepted: Ontopolis, A semantic participatory platform for performance assessment and augmentation of urban environments, Shanghai, 2nd – 4th July 2014, China
>> Publication >> Xia X, Biloria N, Hommel B. (2014); Aesthetics and the embodied mind, Conference, Article: From film studies to interaction design
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at South East University of China, Guangzhou, China >> 2013
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria appointed Scientific Reviewer
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) >> 2013
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria appointed Scientific Reviewer & Editor: Next Generation Building Journal (NGB) >> 2013
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria appointed Scientific Reviewer
47th International Architectural Science Association Conference 2013 “Cutting Edge In Architectural Science", Hong Kong >> 2013
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria serves as Organizing Committee Member ECAADE 2013, TU Delft, Netherlands >> 2013
>> Publication >> Biloria, N. (2013) Performance driven generative design pedagogy: Interfacing multi-agent simulation driven design techniques with environmental modelling methodologies in architectural education, ENHSA Conference: Computation, environment and architectural innovation, Napoli, Italy.
>> Publication >> Achilleas Psyllidis and Nimish Biloria (2013), The Adaptive City: A socio-technical interaction driven approach towards urban systems, Proceedings of the 2nd international Hybrid City Conference, Athens, Greece, ISBN: 978-960-99791-1-5, pp. 371-378.
>> Publication >> Achilleas Psyllidis and Nimish Biloria (2013), Urban Media Geographies: Interfacing Ubiqui- tous Computing with the Physicality of Urban Space, Media Cities 4 conference, May 2013, University at Buffalo, The state university of New York, USA, pp. 302-309.
>> Publication >> Mostafavi, S, Morales Beltran, MG & Biloria, NM (2013). Performance driven design and design information exchange. In R Stouffs & S Sariyildiz (Eds.), Proceedings of the Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (eCAADe) 2013 conference (pp. 117-126). Delft, The Netherlands
>> Publication >> Biloria, NM & Chang, JR (2013). Hyper-Morphology: Experimentations with bio-inspired de- sign processes for adaptive spatial re-use. In R Stouffs (Ed.), Proceedings of the 31st Inter- national Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (pp. 529-538)
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria interviewed by RAI, Lighthouse, Italy: Documentary series on Robotics in Europe >> 2013
>> Journal publication >> Alireza Mahdizadeh Hakak (Faculty of Architecture, TU Delft, Netherlands), Nimish Biloria (Faculty of Architecture, TU Delft, The Netherlands) and Mozhgan Raouf Rahimi (Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran) (2012), Journal article: Implementing Unconventional Virtual Environments for Enhancing Creativity in Architecture Pedagogy, International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments (IJVPLE), Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages: 41-52.
>> Journal Publication >> Biloria, N. (2012); Co-Editor, Book: Hyperbody, First Decade of Interactive Architecture, JapSam Publishers, Netherlands, ISBN-10: 9490322091, ISBN-13: 978-9490322090
>> Journal Publication >> Biloria N. (2012); Interactive morphologies: An investigation into integrated nodal networks and embedded computation processes for developing real-time responsive spatial systems, Frontiers of Architectural Research Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 259–271
>> Journal Publication >> Xin Xia and Biloria Nimish (2012); A 4EA Cognitive approach for rethinking the human in Interactive Architecture, Conference Proceedings: Rethinking the Human in Techology-Driv- en Architecture, Editors: Maria Voyatzaki; Constantin Spiridonidis, ISBN: 978-2-930301-53-2
>> Publication >> Biloria, Nimish and Chang, Jia-Rey (2012), 'Digital physicality, physical Digitally,' Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, HyperCell: A Bio-inspired informa- tion design framework for real-time adaptive spatial components, Volume.2, pp.573-581.
>> Publication >> Alireza M. Hakak, Biloria N (2011), New perception of virtual environments, enhancement of creativity, Proceedings of the eCAADe conference, Ljubljana, Slovenia, ISBN 978-9-4912070-
1-3, pp. 967 - 975
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at National art gallery, Vilnius, Lithuania >> 2011
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Delft lectures on Sustainability, TU Delft, Netherlands >> 2011
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Faculty of Architecture, Warsaw, Poland >> 2011
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Harbin University, Faculty of Architecture, China >> 2011
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Nanjing University, Faculty of Architecture, China >> 2011
>> Journal publication >> Biloria N. (2011); InfoMatters, a multi-agent systems approach for generating performative architectural formations; International Journal of Architectural Computing, Issue 03, Volume 09: September 2011 (205 - 222)
>> Journal publication >> Biloria N. (2011); Interdisciplinary Process Driven Performative Morphologies: A Morphog- enomic approach towards developing context aware spatial formations; V!RUS, No.6, No- mads.usp journal, Creation in Process+es, ISSN: 2175-974.
>> Publication >> Alireza M. Hakak, Biloria N (2011), New perception of virtual environments, enhancement of creativity, Proceedings of the eCAADe conference, Ljubljana, Slovenia, ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3, pp. 967 - 975
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Empowering Infrastructure globally conference, New Delhi, India sponsored by ESSAR Steel and organized by Indian Architect and Builder >> 2010
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands >> Interactive Architecture >> 2010
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Design-Code, Dutch Design Week, Eindhoven, The Netherlands >> 2010
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2010); Interactive Environments: A Multi-disciplinary Approach towards Devel- oping Real-Time Performative Spaces, Entertainment computing – ICEC 2010, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2010, Volume 6243/2010, 254-261, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-15399-0_25, pp. 254-261
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2010); Interactive Bodies, Forward, Volume 110, ISSN 2153-7526, American Institute of Architects Publishers, USA, 2010, pp. 69-76
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Bucharest School of Architecture, Romania >> 2009
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria serves as Session Chair
ENHSA 2013 Conference on Computation, Environment and Architectural Innovation, Napoli, Italy >> 2009
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria serves as Panelist: CHI 2009, Organic User Interfaces - From Tangible and Transitive Materials to programming reality, Boston, USA >> 2009
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria serves as Panelist: Syn_athr(0)isis event: Technopolis, Athens, Greece >> 2009
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N, Sumini, V. (2009); Performative Building Skin Systems: A Morphogenomic Ap- proach Towards Developing Real-Time Adaptive Building Skin Systems, International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 7 - no. 4, pp. 643-676.
Biloria, N. (2009); Performative building skin systems, IEEE Explore, Computation World 2009 conference, Athens, ISBN 978-1-4244-5166-1, pp. 119-125
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2009); Developing an interactive architectural meta-system for contemporary corporate environments, SCROOPE 19, Cambridge architecture journal, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 70-80
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2009); Inter-active spaces Indian architect and builder magazine, Special issue on Digital Architecture, Jasubhai Media, Mumbai, India
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria gives Key note lecture at Key Note lecture at the IxDA, Interaction Design Association, Inter- national South America conference, Sao Paulo, Brazil >> 2008
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria's lecture is at the AEC World Expo, 361 Design conference >> 2008
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Technologies and Construction Lecture series, Building Technology, Bouwkunde, TU Delft, The Netherlands >> 2008
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria is interviewed by the Discovery Channel >> Discovery Science Program, Documentary >> 2008
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria serves as Conference Session Chair ACADIA 08, Evolutionary computation, Minneapolis, USA >> 2008
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2008); Introduction article: Evolutionary computation, ACAADIA 2008, Sili- cone+Skin, ISBN: 978-0-9789463-2-6, Minneapolis, USA
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2008); Hyperbody, (Im) material Processes, New Digital techniques for architecture, Edited by Neil Leach and Xu Weiguo, ISBN: 9787-112-10396-6, China Architecture and Building Press, China
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2008); Non-standard performative architecture, Indian architect and builder magazine, Special issue on Innovate, Jasubhai Media publishers, Mumbai, India
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2008) Morphogenomic Urban and Architectural Systems: An Investigation into In- formatics Oriented Evolution of Form: The Case of the A2 Highway, Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapo- lis 16-19 October 2008, pp.152-157
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2008) Real-time interactive corporate environments, Proceedings of 2nd Sympo- sium on Systems Research in the Arts and Humanities (SSRAH): "On Interaction/Interactivity in Music, Design, Visual and Performing Arts", Baden Baden, Germany, pp. 121-125
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2008) Morphogenomic architecture, An investigation into informatics oriented evolution of form, Proceedings of AEC 08 Conference, Antalya, Turkey, pp. 49-58, http://www.lboro.ac.uk/cice/conferences/AEC2008/
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at University Innsbruck, Austria >> 2007
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at ITD Lecture series, Industrial Design, TU Delft, The Netherlands >> 2007
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria lectures at Goldsmith University, London, UK >> 2007
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2007); Envisioning the responsive milieu, An investigation into aspects of ambient intelligence, human machine symbiosis and ubiquitous computing for developing a generic real time interactive spatial prototype, iA#1, ISBN 978-9059730588, Episode publishers, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 22-33
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2007) Developing an Interactive Architectural Meta-System for Contemporary Corporate Environments: An investigation into aspects of creating responsive spatial systems for corporate offices incorporating rule based computation techniques, Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp.
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2007) Adaptive Corporate Environments, CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007, ISBN: 978-7-5641-0925-7, pp. 391-400
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2007) Adaptive corporate environments, Proceedings of Sources of Architectural Form: Theory and Practice, International conference of Architecture 07, Kuwait City, Kuwait, pp. 371-391
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2007) Spatializing real-time interactive environments, Proceedings of Tangible and Embedded Interaction (TEI 07) conference, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, ISBN: 978-1-59593-619-6, pp. 215-222.
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2006); Design Informatics, Architecture Annual 05-06 TU Delft, 010 Publishers, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
>> Book publication >> Biloria, N. (2006); Inter-active spaces, A multi-disciplinary approach towards developing re- al-time performative spaces, GSM 2, TU Delft, The Netherlands, Episode Publishers, Rotter- dam, The Netherlands, ISBN: 9059730364, pp. 330-339
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2006) Spatializing corporate dynamics, an investigation into aspects of creating responsive spatial systems for corporate offices incorporating rule based computation techniques, Proceedings of Adaptables 06 Conference, TU Eindhoven, The Netherlands, ISBN 10:90-72152-03-4, pp. 74-78
>> Publication >> Biloria, N, Oosterhus, K and Aalbers, C (2006) Design Informatics: a case based investigation into parametric design scripting and CNC based manufacturing techniques, Proceedings of Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Confer- ence of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27, April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
>> Publication >> Biloria, N, Oosterhus, K and Aalbers, C (2006) DESIGN INFORMATICS: (A case based investigation into parametric design, scripting and CNC based manufacturing techniques), CAADRIA
2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, pp. 237-244
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria serves as Conference Session Chair CAADRIA 05, New Delhi, India >> 2005
>> Dr. Nimish Biloria serves as Conference Session Chair: Hawaii International conference for arts and humanities 05, USA
>> Journal publication >> Biloria, N. (2005); Developing concept prototypes for electronic media augmented spatial skins, Architecture Annual 04-05 TU Delft, The Netherlands, 010 Publishers, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2005) Emergent Technologies and Design, Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23rd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 441-447
>> Publication >> Biloria, N., Oosterhuis, K. and Aalbers, C. (2005) Design Informatics, Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 226-235
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2005) Envisioning the responsive milieu, an investigation into aspects of ambient intelligence, machine symbiosis and ubiquitous computing for developing generic real-time spatial prototype, Proceedings of AEC 05, Conference, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, ISBN:90-8559-057-4, pp. 741-751
>> Publication >> Biloria, N, Oosterhuis, K (2005) Envisioning the RESPONSIVE milieu: An investigation into aspects of ambient intelligence, human machine symbiosis and ubiquitous computing for developing a generic real-time interactive spatial prototype, CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia/ ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 421-432
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2005) Responsive environments, Proceedings of Hawaii International conference for arts and humanities 05, USA http://www.allconferences.com/conferences/20040223191228/
>> Publication >> Biloria, N (2004) Developing Concept Prototypes for Electronic Media Augmented Spatial Skins - An Investigation Into Biotic Processes, Material Technologies and Embedded Computation for Developing Intelligent Systemic Networks, CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 159-172.
>> Book publication >> Biloria, N. (2002); Design research work - TKTS 2000, AA (Architectural Association) Year Book 01 – 02, London, UK.